AQA Spec B: Integrating AO1 and AO2

When you first begin to use critical theories such as Marxism in your essays, AO2 can easily be forgotten. You are having SUCH a nice time considering all the ways in which Marxist theory can be used to interpret a text, that you forget all about caesura and assonance.

The following extract is from ‘Eveline’, a short story from James Joyce’s brilliant Dubliners.

One time there used to be a field there in which they used to play every evening with other people’s children. Then a man from Belfast bought the field and built houses in it – not like their little brown houses but bright brick houses with shining roofs.


Here is an example of how you could comment on this paragraph using both interpretation (AO1) and analysis (AO2):


Here , the field, suggestive of a natural state of communal existence and the freedom to play / rest after the day’s labours, is ‘bought’ and ‘bright brick’ houses are ‘built’ on it by ‘a man from Belfast’. What was once the setting for human interaction and creativity is sacrificed at the altar of Capitalism. The use of the indefinite article serves to keep the ‘man’ anonymous; he represents the landowning class (or bourgeoisie) and his coming from Belfast – centre of industry and commerce – further emphasises this. The alliteration of b sounds creates a harsh effect, hinting at the heartlessness and lack of remorse for his actions.


Have a go at writing a paragraph like the one above from other extracts from ‘Eveline’.



How to Write an Essay

This post uses a sample essay on To Kill a Mockingbird to guide you step by step through the process of writing an essay. Follow the 8 steps below and essays will become a walk in the park.


1. Write the essay title at the top of the page (2 minutes)
(This sounds obvious, but you wouldn’t believe how many people forget to do it.) Why not underline it with a ruler, just for good measure? It’s always good to start off on the right foot.

What do you learn about the character of Calpurnia in chapter 12?


2. Plan your answer (10-15 minutes)
Quotations can be very helpful when it comes to planning. Collect quotations from chapter 12 relating to Calpurnia. You can use them to get ideas about what to put in your essay. But don’t just go through them one by one in the order they happen to be in. Think about it. You want to put them into different groups, so that your essay isn’t jumping around all over the place. It will make it much easier if you spend some time doing this before you start writing. So spend 10 – 15 minutes putting them into groups. Use the headings below. They will be the different sections of your essay.
• Quotations about Calpurnia’s life in the past.
• Quotations about Calpurnia’s life now.
• Quotations that show Calpurnia’s relationship with Scout and Jem.
• Quotations that show Calpurnia’s personality.
(You can’t do this quickly. Once you start thinking about it, you’ll realise that there are lots of different ways of grouping the quotations. Don’t worry – just spend a bit of time on it.)


3. Write an introduction (5-10 minutes)
In your introduction, it’s a good idea to give the reader an idea of what the essay is going to be about. The problem is, you don’t want to give too much away. So keep it short, and explain very simply what happens in chapter 12, and whereabouts in the novel it is. You could also write a sentence about who Calpurnia is, but you should keep this very general for the moment.


4. Make a point (2 minutes)
This is going to much easier because of your plan. Look at the first heading– Calpurnia’s life in the past. You could just copy it out, a bit like a subheading:

Calpurnia’s life in the past.

But it’s much better if you can turn it into a sentence. Something like this:

One of the things we learn about in chapter 12 is Calpurnia’s life before she came to Maycomb.

You should always start the different sections of your essay like this. It helps the reader keep track of where you are. (It helps you, too.)


5. Use a quotation (or reference) to back up your point (3 minutes)
Now then. You could just whack it in, like this:

One of the things we learn about in chapter 12 is Calpurnia’s life before she came to Maycomb: ‘”I’ve spent all my days working for the Finches or the Bufords, an’ I moved to Maycomb when your daddy and your mamma married.” (p. 138)

But it’s much better if you can introduce it. Something like this:

One of the things we learn about in chapter 12 is Calpurnia’s life before she came to Maycomb. On the way home from church, she tells Jem and Scout: ‘”I’ve spent all my days working for the Finches or the Bufords, an’ I moved to Maycomb when your daddy and your mamma married.” (p. 138)


6. Pick out words or phrases from the quotation and say something about them (5 minutes)
This is the bit that most people find the most difficult. Don’t worry – it’ll get easier the more you do it. If you’re not sure which words to pick out, try some out and see if you can think of anything to say. Something like this:

One of the things we learn about in chapter 12 is Calpurnia’s life before she came to Maycomb. On the way home from church, she tells Jem and Scout: ‘”I’ve spent all my days working for the Finches or the Bufords, an’ I moved to Maycomb when your daddy and your mamma married.” (p. 138) The phrase ‘all my days’ tells us that Calpurnia has spent her whole life working for Atticus and his ancestors – perhaps she even grew up working for them. It would not have been uncommon for servants to spend their whole lives working for the same family. Calpurnia must have grown up with Atticus, and probably knows him better than anyone. She would also have known Scout’s mother. We realise just how much a part of the family she is.


7. Repeat numbers 4 – 6 until you have reached the end of your plan (30 – 40 minutes)


8. Write a conclusion (10 minutes)

A bit like the introduction, there is no need for this to be very long. Don’t include any quotations. Don’t just repeat everything you’ve said. You want to answer the question, as plainly and simply as you can, with one big answer. Using the words from the title will help. Something like this:

In chapter 12, we learn a number of things about Calpurnia that we didn’t know previously. All of these give us a greater sense of who she is as a person – her personality, her past and her present. It is interesting that Harper Lee waits this long (almost half the novel). Perhaps it is because Scout is the narrator – and it is not until she begins to grow up that she really begins to see Calpurnia for who she is. Until now, she has viewed Calpurnia as the cook, and little more. But now she begins to realise that she has a history – a unique personality, and so do we.



Mrs Dubose and the Camelias

This sounds like the name of a band.
It’s not (I don’t think…) it’s a reference to chapter 11 of Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird, in which the antaganistic, crumbly old Mrs Dubose from down the road forces poor Jem to read Ivanhoe (and such like) to her as she dribbles her way through the sticky Maycomb afternoons.

Once you get into Part 2 of the novel, when the trial of Tom Robinson begins to dominate the narrative, you’ll forget all about the funny little goings-on of Part 1. The rabid Tim Johnson, lolloping his way down the road, the summer games with Dill and adventures into the Radley territory and, indeed, Mrs. Dubose and her camelias… these will all seem like minor, insignificant happenings, in comparison with the drama of Tom Robinson’s trial.

So let’s pause before we embark on the heady adventures of Part 2, to reflect on why Part 1 is so important. Because it is, actually.

The themes that are explored in these little stories are exactly those that Harper Lee will explore in the rest of the book. The prejudice against Boo Radley that we see in Part 1 will re-emerge as the prejudice against Tom Robinson (and Mayella Ewell) in Part 2. The empathy that Atticus tells Scout is so important in Part 1 (‘You never really know a person… until you climb into his skin and walk around in it’) is the same empathy required of Jem as he learns more about the trial in Part 2. The courage of Mrs. Dubose in Part 1 is the same courage required of Atticus as he defends Tom Robinson in Part 2. It’s all very clever, you see.

Have a look at this:

Mrs Dubose - themes

It shows some of the themes prevalent in chapter 11.

Re-read chapter 11, and make notes on moments where one of the themes seems to be important.

Use your notes, and the diagram, to answer the following essay question:

How does Harper Lee use the story of Mrs Dubose in chapter 11 to explore some of the novel’s key themes?

Due: Monday 14th October


A is for Arcadia: 25 Pastoral Terms

The Countryside

As promised, here is a list of critical terminology for LITB3 Elements of the Pastoral. Read it. Know it. Use it. Be it.

  1. Antipastoral: The opposite of the pastoral, in terms of genre. Antipastoral texts are designed to subvert and undermine the ideas and illusions upon which the pastoral genre is founded.
  2. Arcadia:The mountain region found in the Peloponnese, Greece, a place depicted in classical literature as an ideal and rural haven populated by shepherds and shepherdesses tending their flocks and being free from the stresses and strains of ‘real life’.
  3. Bucolic: Another term for ‘pastoral’.
  4. Court/courtly: Befitting a royal court, hence, the opposite of ‘country’/’rustic’.
  5. Doric: Another term for ‘rustic’.
  6. Ecologue: A short poem, usually taking the form of  a dialogue between two pastoral characters.
  7. Edenic: Of or pertaining to the Garden of Eden.
  8. Elegiac: Characteristic of an elegy (see below).
  9. Elegy: A poem of mourning, similar to a lament, for a deceased individual or a tragic event. Often, pastoral elegies lament the death of a shepherd, or, in later versions, the death of the pastoral idyll itself.
  10. Georgic: A poem about rural life which instructs the reader in agricultural matters.
  11. Golden Age: A time of idyll, often containing qualities such as prestige, wealth and power.
  12. Idealised: Someone or something that is exalted to a state of perfection.
  13. Idyll: An adjective, used to describe a place or state of tranquility and happiness. To quote the AQA textbook: ‘In contrast to the elegy, an idyll presents a positive vision, and one that is attainable’. Theocritus wrote ‘Idylls’.
  14. Idyllic: An adjective, used to describe something with the qualities of an idyll.
  15. Lament: An expression of grief or sorrow, often sung, for the loss of a person, state or thing.
  16. Lyric: I love this word! It means song-like, melodic, and often expressing intense feeling. Some of you often write that a line of poetry ‘flows’. What you mean is that it is ‘lyrical’. (Writing that a poem ‘flows’ is rather horrid, I think. Don’t do it.) 
  17. Peasant:In pastoral literature, a country-dweller, or a ‘rustic’.

    This man is most definitely a swain.
  18. Picaresque: A type of pastoral narrative, typically consisting of a journey made by a disreputable servant and his master. During the course of the journey, a series of unfortunate events take place.
  19. Provincial: Within the pastoral genre, another term for ‘rustic’.
  20. Romantic / Romanticised: A text that is designed to capture and evoke intense emotions.
  21. Rural:Pertaining to the countryside. 
  22. Rustic: As a noun, a ‘rustic’ is a countryside-dweller, who is unsophisticated. As an adjective, it means something that is characteristic of rural life.
  23. Sentimental: That which prioritises feelings and emotions over reason and the rational.
  24. Swain: A man who is the lover of a young woman, or, more generally, a ‘country lad’.
  25. Urban: Pertaining to the city, hence, the opposite of ‘rural’.

Elements of the Pastoral: They’re Everywhere!

How now, rustics! Wither are you bound?

It occurred to me about five minutes ago that you read a fair amount of pastoral literature last year, but we weren’t really thinking about it then. What about Act 4 of ‘The Winter’s Tale’, for example? (You studied it for LITB2 Dramatic Genres.) Or some of those Thomas Hardy poems? And then earlier this year, when we were considering metaphor for LITB4, we looked at Keats’ ‘Ode to Autumn’. Remember?

I mean to say. They’re positively pastoral. I suggest you dig them out and have another read. You never know, you might discover some ‘elements’ lurking about.