Life as a Journey: Metaphors we Live by

Hello! I just watched this and thought of our recent chats about the ‘Life as a Journey’ metaphor. Thought you might enjoy it:

Life and Music

Imagine if Life was a piece of music!

Hope you’re having a good half term,

Ms N


My Last Duchess: A Feminist Reading

There are a number of points we could make if reading this poem from a feminist viewpoint. Here are some of them:

* Women are objectified in the poem – use of possessive pronoun ‘my’ at the start and the objectification of the count’s daughter as the duke’s ‘object’ at the end.

* The duchess is portrayed as the stereotype of an ‘immoral and dangerous seductress’ – she ‘thanked men’ and ‘her looks went everywhere’. In this sense, she holds a real power over the Duke: she is able to incite fear of emasculation through infidelity (rather like Leontes’ fear of being cuckolded in ‘The Winter’s Tale).

* Within this society, there is no place for women to hold this type of power – the duchess is prevented from maintaining such a position by the duke’s abuse of his position of power – ‘all smiles stopped’.

* Readers may see the duchess as the ‘cute but essentially helpless’ stereotype – she can appear unthinking, lacking judgement – ‘she liked whatever she looked on’. She is undiscriminating, unthinking perhaps.

* The duke is unable (and unwilling) to upset the status quo by asking the duchess to change her behaviour. This, he says, would be ‘some stooping’. His pride as the alpha male results in his abuse of power when he has her ‘stopped’ (killed) instead.

* The language he uses is indicative of the balance of power between them: ‘if she let / Herself be lessoned so’ suggests his authority over her, as does his imagined dialogue: ‘Just this / Or that in you disgusts me; here you miss / Or there exceed the mark’. 

* The setting is important – as a painting, the duchess has become assimilated into the duke’s display of wealth. She now exists to bolster his pride (and of course, always did.) Futhermore, as a work of art, she fulfills the stereotype of the woman as beautiful, to be admired. She is a clear example of how the ‘male gaze’ reduces ‘femininity’ to ‘beauty’. 

* The curtain acts as a metaphor for the Duke’s control. He now is able to prevent other men from usurping his position as ruler, because he controls the curtain – ‘none puts by / The curtain I have drawn for you, but I…’

* Women are defined by their relationship to men – ‘my last duchess’ and ‘his fair daughter’ – neither are given their own name or identity.

The above points are not in any order, nor do they form an exhaustive list of everything there is to say about this poem in terms of feminism. They are a starting point for your essay, which is due in on Thursday 11th October.

Practical Jokes in ‘Much Ado About Nothing’: Act 2 Scene 3

What is it that makes these scenes comical?

Firstly, the humour lies in Benedick looking like a fool. His reactions are crucial to the comedy. Even though Shakespeare gives him very few lines, his unspoken responses are essential to the success of the scene. The contrast between his reactions and his previous behaviour makes us laugh. Believing himself to be unseen and hidden, he is free from his stereotype as a bachelor. His ‘mask’ is off.

Secondly, the camaraderie amongst the ‘practical jokers’ is important. They are united by their secret and a sense of shared mischief and fun. The way they egg each other on, and encourage each other to even greater heights of ‘acting’ is the source of much of the scene’s humour.

Finally, the joke is also on the jokers (depending on how the scene is directed). They may be unconvincing at points; perhaps they almost fail. Will he believe them? Will he fall for it? Leonato may well be a source of amusement in this sense – see lines 135-143.